10 Dollar: Ten Songs About Prostitutes. The Dismembered Body of Swedish Prostitute Catrine de Costa is Found in Stockholm, the Findings Later Led to a Trial That Ended in a Mistrial for Two Accused Doctors. This Day in History, 18/07/1984.

1.  Manic Street Preachers ‘Yes’

(from the album The Holy Bible, 1994).

2.  MIA ’10 Dollar’

(from the album Arular, 2005).

3.  Queen ‘Killer Queen’

(from the album Sheer Heart Attack, 1974).

4.  Ryan Adams ‘Tina Toledo’s Street Walkin’ Blues’

(from the album Gold, 2001).

5.  Small Faces ‘Rene’

(from the album Ogdens’ Nut Gone Flake, 1968).

6.  The Police ‘Roxanne’

(from the album Outlandos d’Amour, 1978).

7.  Tom Waits ‘Christmas Card from A Hooker in Minneapolis’

(from the album Blue Valentine, 1978).

8.  The Pogues ‘The Old Main Drag’

(from the album Rum, Sodomy & the Lash, 1985).

9.  Lou Reed ‘The Kids’

(from the album Berlin, 1973).

10. Arctic Monkeys ‘When the Sun Goes Down’

(from the album Whatever People Say I Am, That’s What I’m Not, 2006).

1984: Ten Songs Inspired by Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is Published. This Day in History, 08/06/1949.

1.  Radiohead ‘2+2=5’

(from the album Hail to the Thief, 2003).

2.  Muse ‘Resistance’

(from the album The Resistance, 2009).

3.  Coldplay ‘Spies’

(from the album Parachutes, 2000).

4.  David Bowie ‘1984’

(from the album Diamond Dogs, 1974).

5.  The Clash ‘1977’

(B-side of the single White Riot, 1977).

6.  Manic Street Preachers ‘1985’

(from the album Lifeblood, 2003).

7.  Dead Kennedys ‘California Uber Alles’

(from the album Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables, 1980).

8.  John Lennon ‘Only People’

(from the album Mind Games, 1973).

9.  The Jam ‘Standards’

(from the album This is the Modern World, 1977).

10. Eurythmics ‘Sexcrime (Nineteen Eighty-Four)’

(from the album 1984 (For the Love of Big Brother), 1984).

Song of the Day: Music Inspired by Television Shows (Day Four). “Come Dancing, That’s How They Did It When I Was A Kid …”

Come Dancing, from The Kinks’ 1982 album State of Confusion, takes its name from the TV series, Come Dancing, a BBC British ballroom dancing competition show which ran from 1949 to 1998, making it one of television’s longest running shows.  Come Dancing is also the forerunner of Strictly Come Dancing, which has ran on the BBC since 2004.

In addition to its title inspiration, the song was also inspired by memories of Ray Davies’ sisters, who loved to dance, going on dates to the local Palais and in particular, his sister, Rene.  Rene, who lived in Canada with her reportedly abusive husband but visited her parental home in Fortis Green occasionally, is notable for having bought Davies his first guitar for his thirteenth birthday (21st June 1957) after his attempts to get his parents to buy him one had failed.  On the evening of the same day, Rene, who had a weak heart as a result of a childhood bout of rheumatic fever, died of a heart attack whilst dancing at the Lyceum ballroom.  In an interview with NPR Music in 2014, Davies said of the day:

“[Rene] had died dancing in a ballroom in London in the arms of a stranger … Coming back from Canada where she’d emigrated to die, really, and again, being a source of inspiration … She gave me my first guitar, which was a great parting gift”.

Davies and his older brother and band-mate, Dave Davies, had six sisters.  Another sister, Rose was the inspiration behind the song Rosie, Won’t You Please Come Home, from the album Face to Face, 1966.

Later, on the album Arthur or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire (1969), Rose inspired the song Australia.  Rose had moved to Australia in 1964, with her husband Arthur Anning, who gave the Arthur… album its name.

Lyrically, Come Dancing is a nostalgic look back at the songwriter’s childhood, with memories of Rene and his other sisters going on dates at the local Palais dance hall where big bands would play.  The lyrics also tell of how the Palais has now been demolished and of the changes that have taken place in Davies’ native London:  “They put up a parking lot on a piece of land, Where the supermarket used to stand, Before that they put up a bowling alley, On the site that used to be the local Pally, That’s where the big bands used to come and play, My sister went there on a Saturday”.

The lyrics go on to reminisce his sisters’ dates:  “She would be ready but she always made them wait, In the hallway, in anticipation, He didn’t know the night would end up in frustration, He’d end up blowing all his wages for the week, All for a cuddle and a peck on the cheek”.  Davies also remembers his sister coming home from the dates in the lines “My sister should have come in at midnight, And my Mum would always sit up and wait, It always ended up in a big row, When my sister used to get in later, Out of my window, I can see them in the moonlight, Two silhouettes saying goodbye by the garden gate”.  Later in the song, Davies tells of how his sisters’ daughters are now going on dates:  “My sister’s married and she lives on an estate, Her daughters go out, now it’s her turn to wait, She knows they get away with things she never could, But if I asked her, I wonder if she would, Come dancing …”

In an interview with Uncut magazine in 2014, Davies stated that the song was sung from the perspective of a spiv:  “It was about an East End spiv, sung in a London voice.  If anybody had lost faith in us being real people, that record would restore it”.  However, in a 2010 interview with Clash magazine, Davies also stated the song was sung from the point of view of an East End barrow boy:  “[Come Dancing] is sung by an East End barrow boy – I think there’s cockney rhyming slang in it”.

Musically, Davies has stated that Come Dancing was an attempt to get back to the “warmer” style which had informed their songs before their transformation into an arena rock act.  In his 2014 interview with Uncut magazine, Davies said:  “I wanted to regain some of the warmth I thought we’d lost, doing those stadium tours.  Come Dancing was an attempt to get back to our roots, about my sisters’ memories of dancing in the ‘50s”.  The music of Come Dancing takes the idea of the big bands mentioned in the song and uses it to great effect, creating an upbeat pop single which rightfully reached number 12 in the UK charts, the band’s highest charting single since Apeman, from the album Lola Versus Powerman and the Moneygoround, Part One, in 1970.

The single also fared successfully in the US, reaching number 6 and becoming the band’s biggest hit since Tired of Waiting for You, from the album Kinda Kinks, in 1965.

The promotional video for the single, filmed at Ilford Palace in November 1982, was directed by Julien Temple, also famous for his work on promotional videos for the Sex Pistols, Culture Club and Dexys Midnight Runners.  The lyrics of the song are used in the storyline for the video, with Ray Davies starring as a spiv character who takes the sister out on a date.   The rest of the band appear as the band playing at the Palais after the events from Davies’ childhood, with the spiv character solemnly watching.

Davies would also play the spiv character in the video for Don’t Forget to Dance, also directed by Julien Temple.  Don’t Forget to Dance was the follow up single to Come Dancing and also taken from the State of Confusion album. 

The Spiv character was also reprised for the video for the Do It Again single, from Word of Mouth (1984), once again directed by Julien Temple.

Additionally, according to Davies, The Kinks’ 1986 album Think Visual was originally conceived as a concept album centering around taking the character and putting him in the environment of a video shop.

Just like the Palais mentioned in Come Dancing, Ilford Palace, the setting of the single’s video was demolished in 2007 in order to make way for luxury flats.  Come Dancing later served as the title track for The Kinks’ 1986 compilation album, Come Dancing with The Kinks: The Best of the Kinks 1977 – 1986 and the title track for Ray Davies’ 2008 stage musical of the same name, set in a 1950’s music hall.

London, Can You Wait?: Ten Songs About London. The Thames Barrier is Officially Opened. This Day in History, 08/05/1984.

1.  Morrissey ‘Hairdresser on Fire’

(from the album Bona Drag, 1990).

2.  Catatonia ‘Londinium’

(from the album Equally Cursed and Blessed, 1999).

3.  The Smiths ‘London’

(B-side of the single Shoplifters of the World Unite, 1987).

4. Blur ‘For Tomorrow’

(from the album Modern Life is Rubbish, 1993).

5.  Gene ‘London, Can You Wait?’

(from the album Olympian, 1995).

6. The Kinks ‘Big Black Smoke’

(from the album Something Else (Bonus Tracks), 1967).

7. The Libertines ‘Up The Bracket’

(from the album Up The Bracket, 2002).

8.  The Clash ‘Guns of Brixton’

(from the album London Calling, 1979).

9. Kirsty MacColl ‘Soho Square’

(from the album Titanic Days, 1993).

10. The Jam ‘Down In The Tube Station At Midnight’

(from the album All Mod Cons, 1978).

Song of the Day: Places in Music (Day Four). “Oh Manchester, So Much to Answer for …”

Suffer Little Children, the final song on The Smith’s self-titled debut album (1984), is a chilling and sombre account of The Moors Murders, carried out by Myra Hindley and Ian Brady between July 1963 and October 1965.  It would be a further year before Hindley and Brady confessed to the murders and the full extent of the crimes that inspired Suffer Little Children would come to light.  At the time of the song’s writing and release, Hindley and Brady had both maintained their innocence and had not told the police about two of the murders, hence Suffer Little Children only including the names of three of the victims.

“Over the moor, take me to the moor, Dig a shallow grave, And I’ll lay me down”

The first victim of the killer couple was the 16 year old Pauline Reade, Hindley’s neighbour.  Reade had disappeared on her way to a dance at the British Railways Club in Gorton, Manchester, on the 12th July 1963.  On the same evening, Brady had told Hindley that he wanted to “commit his perfect murder”.  He told Hindley to drive her van around the local area whilst he followed on his motorcycle.  Upon spotting the victim for “his perfect murder”, he would flash his headlights and Hindley was to stop to offer that person a lift.

Driving down Gorton Lane, Brady saw a young girl walking towards them and signalled Hindley to stop, which she did not do until she had passed the girl.  Brady stopped his motorbike alongside Hindley’s van and demanded to know why she had not offered the girl a lift, to which Hindley replied that she recognised the girl as Marie Ruck, a neighbour of her mother’s.

Shortly after this failed attempt, at around 8pm, the couple were driving down Froxmer Street when Brady noticed a girl wearing a pale blue coat and white high-heeled shoes walking away from them.  Brady once again signalled for Hindley to stop.  Upon stopping, Hindley recognised the girl as Pauline Reade, a friend of her younger sister, Maureen.  Reade accepted a lift from Hindley.  Hindley told Reade that she had lost an expensive glove on Saddleworth Moor and asked if she would mind helping her to find it.  Reade said she was in no hurry and agreed to helping Hindley.

Reade was 16 years old, a few years older than their intended first victim, Maria Ruck.  Hindley realised that there would be slightly less commotion over the death of a teenager than there would be over a child of seven or eight.  Upon reaching the moor, Hindley stopped her van and Brady arrived shortly afterwards on his motorcycle.  She introduced him to Reade as her boyfriend and said he had also come to find the missing glove.  When questioned, Hindley told the police that Brady had taken Reade onto the moor whilst Hindley waited in the van.  After about 30 minutes, Brady returned alone and took Hindley to the place where Reade lay dying.  Her throat had been cut twice with a large knife, with the larger of these wounds being across her voice box.  The collar of Reade’s coat had been pushed into the wound in a deliberate fashion.

Whilst Brady had gone to find the spade which he had hidden nearby to bury the body, Hindley told of how she had noticed that Reade’s coat was undone and her clothes were untidy, leading Hindley to guess that Brady had sexually assaulted her.  However, Brady’s account of the murder differs greatly.  Brady claimed that Hindley was present at the crime scene and that she even took part in the sexual assault.  After burying Reade’s body, Brady put his motorcycle in the back of Hindley’s van.   Whilst returning home, Hindley and Brady passed Reade’s mother, Joan, who was accompanied by her son, Paul.  Hindley and Brady stopped to help Joan search the streets for her daughter.

Oh John, you’ll never be a man, And you’ll never see your home again”.

The second victim of The Moors Murders was 12 year old John Kilbride.  Hindley and Brady approached Kilbride at a market in Ashton-Under-Lyne in the early evening of the 23rd of November 1963.  The couple offered Kilbride a lift home, telling him that his parents would be worried about him being out so late.  They bribed Kilbride with a bottle of sherry and he got into the Ford Anglia car that Hindley had recently hired.  Once in the car, Brady told Kilbride that the sherry was at the couple’s home and that they would have to make a detour to collect it before dropping him home.  Once they were on their way, Brady suggested another detour to search for a glove which he said Hindley had lost on the moor.  Upon reaching the moor, Brady took to the child with him to supposedly search for Hindley’s glove whilst Hindley waited in the car.  Brady sexually assaulted Kilbride and attempted to slit his throat with a 6-inch serrated blade before eventually strangling him with a piece of string, possibly a shoelace.

“A woman said: “I know my son is dead, I’ll never rest my hands on his sacred head.””

The third victim was Keith Bennett, who vanished from his grandmother’s house in Longsight, Manchester, during the early evening of 16th June, 1964, four days after his twelfth birthday.  Hindley asked Bennett for his help in loading some boxes into her Mini pick-up truck and told him that she would drive him home afterwards.  Once she had lured him into the pick-up truck, she drove to a lay-by on Saddleworth Moor, where Brady was waiting.  Once again, Bennett was told that Hindley had lost a glove and she had asked for his help in finding it.  Brady went with Bennett to find the fictitious glove.  Hindley kept watch until 30 minutes later when Brady reappeared, alone and carrying a spade which had been hidden there earlier.  When Hindley asked Brady how he had killed Bennett, he said he had sexually assaulted him and strangled him with a piece of string.

“Lesley Ann, with your pretty white beads”.

On the 26th December 1964, Hindley and Brady went to a local fairground in search of another victim.  They noticed Lesley Ann Downey standing beside one of the rides.  After realising Downey was on her own, they approached the 10 year old girl and deliberately dropped some of the shopping they were carrying close to her.  They asked for Downey’s help in carrying the shopping to the couple’s car and then to their home.  Downey agreed and once back at Hndley and Brady’s home, she was undressed, gagged and forced to pose for photographs before being raped and killed.  It is suspected that like the previous two victims, Downey was strangled with a piece of string.

When questioned about the murder, Hindley maintained that she had gone to fill a bath for the child and on returning found the girl dead, killed by Brady.  However, Brady stated that it was Hindley who killed Downey.  The morning after the murder, Hindley and Brady drove Downey’s body to Saddleworth Moor and buried her, naked with her clothes at her feet, in a shallow grave.

“Edward, see those alluring lights?  Tonight will be your very last night”.

The final victim of the couple was 17 year old engineer Edward Evans.  On the 6th October 1965, Brady had met Evans at Manchester Central Railway Station.  Hindley had driven Brady to Manchester Central Station and waited outside whilst Brady selected their victim.  After a few minutes, Brady reappeared with Evans, introducing Hindley as his sister.  Brady invited Evan’s back to the couple’s home at 16 Wardle Brook Avenue in Hattersley, Manchester for a drink, where Brady beat him to death with an axe.

This murder was to prove to be the couple’s undoing, as now becoming cocky and complacent, Brady had attempted to recruit Hindley’s brother-in-law, David Smith into their murderous plans.  When the couple had arrived home with Evans, Brady had sent Hindley to fetch Smith.  On returning with Smith, Hindley told Smith to wait outside for her signal, a flashing light.  After the signal, Smith knocked on the door and was met by Brady who asked him if he come for “the miniature bottles of wine”.  Brady led Smith into the kitchen and left him there, saying that he was going to collect the wine.  A few minutes later, Smith heard a scream followed by Hindley shouting loudly for him to come and help.  Smith rushed into the living room to the sight of Brady repeatedly striking Evans over the head with the flat of an axe.  He watched in shock as Brady then throttled his victim with a length of electrical cord.  During the process of killing Evans, Brady had sprained his ankle and the body was too heavy for Smith to take to the car on his own.  They therefore wrapped the body in plastic sheeting and put it in the spare bedroom.  Smith agreed to help Brady to dispose of Evans’s body the following evening.  He went home and, horrified at what he had witnessed, told his wife, Maureen, what he had seen.  The couple called the police from a public phone box at 6.07am the morning after the murder, the police searched the house and found the body of Edward Evans and Hindley and Brady were arrested.

When interrogated about the events, Hindley said “Whatever Ian has done, I have done”, alluded to in Suffer Little Children with the line “Wherever he has gone, I have gone”.  Upon sentencing the couple to life imprisonment, the judge, Mr Justice Atkinson described Brady and Hindley as “two sadistic killers of the utmost depravity”.

“Oh, find me … find me, nothing more, We are on a sullen misty moor …” 

Initially, the police were only aware of three killings, those of Edward Evans, Lesley Ann Downey and John Kilbride.  The investigation was reopened in 1985 after Brady was reported in the press as having confessed to the murders of Pauline Reade and Keith Bennett.  Hindley and Brady were taken separately to Saddleworth Moor to assist the police in their search for the bodies of Reade and Bennett, by then having both confessed to their murders.

Hindley was characterised by the press worldwide as “the most evil woman in Britain”.  She made several attempts to have her life sentence overturned, claiming that she was reformed and no longer a danger to society, but was never released.  Hindley died in 2002, aged 60 years old.  Brady was declared criminally insane in 1985 and has since been confined to the high security Ashworth Hospital.  He has made it clear that he never wants to be released and has repeatedly asked that he be allowed to die.

At the time of the murders, Morrissey was a child himself, being 4 years old in 1963, making the youngest victims not too much older than him.  The reaction in Manchester was one of horror and disbelief that such acts could happen and also that one of the perpetrators was a woman, perhaps why the song focuses more on Hindley than Brady.  In Suffer Little Children, Morrissey may allude to the shock felt that one of the perpetrators was a woman in the phrase “Hindley wakes …” Hindle Wakes is 1910 play by Stanley Houghton (which has since seen various film versions).  The play criticises the patriarchal society’s view that women, unlike men, are not governed by the laws of nature, primarily those related to sexual desires.  Therefore, by referring to the title of the play with the phrase “Hindley wakes”, Morrissey may be extending this criticism to include many peoples’ beliefs, particularly at the time of Hindley’s arrest, that a woman is not naturally capable of horrors such as the Moors Murders or that she could not have been a conscious participant, instead being manipulated by the man.

Morrissey wrote Suffer Little Children after reading Emlyn Williams’s book Beyond Belief: A Chronicle of Murder and its Detection (1967).  It was one of the first songs that lyricist Morrissey wrote with guitarist Johnny Marr.  The title of the song is taken from the Gospel of Matthew 19:14 in which Jesus rebukes his disciples for turning away a group of children by saying, “Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for such is the kingdom of heaven”.

Suffer Little Children caused much controversy at the time of its release, particularly when placed in context of an album on which the opening song, Reel Around The Fountain, was said by many, including the press, to allude to a homosexual and potentially paedophilic relationship (“It’s time the tale were told, Of how you took a child, And you made him old”).

Similarly controversial at the time was track 5, The Hand That Rocks the Cradle, which the press also suggested was about paedophilia.  These claims have been strongly denied by the band.

Suffer Little Children cause more controversy when it was featured on the B-side of the single Heaven Knows I’m Miserable Now (1984).  The single featured an image of 1960’s pools winner Viv Nicholson who bore more than a passing resemblance to Myra Hindley, something that many newspapers picked up on.  As a result, the single and album were both withdrawn from sale by some retailers, including Woolworths and Boots.  Despite this, Morrissey later struck up a close friendship with Ann West, the mother of victim Lesley Ann Downey, after she accepted that the band’s intentions had been entirely honourable.

Song of the Day: Authors and Literature in Music (Day Six).

In 1973, days after completing work on the Pin Ups album, a collection of cover versions which officially marked the end of the Ziggy Stardust period, David Bowie set about the arduous task of creating a West End musical based on George Orwell’s dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949).  Several songs were written for this adventurous outing but when George Orwell’s widow refused him the rights, Bowie found himself with a set of material heavily influenced by the apocalyptic totalitarian themes of Nineteen Eighty Four and nothing to do with them.  This inspired Bowie to create his own nightmarish environment, Hunger City and the Diamond Dogs (1974) album was born.

Along with the obvious Orwellian influence, the first side of Diamond Dogs is also influenced by the cut up techniques of William Burroughs in Sweet Thing / Candidate / Sweet Thing (Reprise) and by A Clockwork Orange (1962) by Anthony Burgess in the droog-like “Dogs” and in the resemblance of the Halloween Jack character to A Clockwork Orange’s lead character, Alex.  The writing style on the album is also reminiscent of the post-apocalyptic dysptopian feel of a number of works by JG Ballard, such as Crash (1973) and High Rise (1975).  Much of the second side of the resulting album focused purely on the songs which Bowie had written for his unrealised Nineteen Eighty-Four project:  We Are The Dead, 1984 and Big Brother.  Several other songs were written based around the Nineteen Eighty-Four theme, notably Dodo (AKA You Didn’t Hear It From Me).  Dodo was performed as part of a medley with 1984 from the then to be released Diamond Dogs album for Midnight Special on US TV in October 1973.  This performance of 1984 / Dodo is notable as it was a duet with Marianne Faithfull, who elected to wear a nun’s habit slashed at the back showing her derriere.

The song 1984 became the centrepiece of the second side of Diamond Dogs album and in the context of Bowie’s interpretation of the Nineteen Eighty-Four, is thought to represent the imprisonment of Winston Smith and his interrogation by O’Brien.  The lyrics bear a passing resemblance to the earlier All The Madmen from The Man Who Sold The World (1970), with both songs being about incarceration.  For example, in All The Madmen, Bowie sings “Day after day, they take some brain away” and in 1984, he sings “They’ll split your pretty cranium and fill it full of air”.  There are a number of other Bowie songs which involve the theme of incarceration, see also The Wild-Eyed Boy From Freecloud (from Space Oddity, 1969) and Scream Like A Baby (from Scary Monsters and Super Creeps, 1980).  The theme of incarceration in Nineteen Eighty-Four is of obvious interest to Bowie, having already written around the same theme several times previously.  His interest in the theme may come from his Half-Brother Terry Burns’ incarceration in various mental health institutions and his family’s various battles with mental illness.

With it’s Orwell inspired lyrics coupled with the disco-funk feel of the music, obviously inspired by Isaac Hayes’ Theme From Shaft (1971), 1984 is the strongest cut of all the songs Bowie wrote for his Nineteen Eighty-Four project.  Musically, the song was an indication of what to expect from Bowie’s ‘plastic soul’ period.  Of the other songs specifically written for the aborted Nineteen Eighty-Four Project, the dark and eerie sounding We Are The Dead takes it’s title from a line spoken by Winston Smith to his girlfriend, Julia, before their imprisonment by the Thought Police and finds the characters worrying of repercussions following their illicit affair and the insistent and slightly unnerving Big Brother is based upon the character in Orwell’s book, returning Bowie to the idea of the “Super God” or “Homo Superior” featured in earlier songs such as The Supermen from The Man Who Sold The World (1970) and Oh! You Pretty Things from Hunky Dory (1971).  Bowie’s fascination with supermen, whether in terms of his alter-egos, mythical figures, legend, philosophy (mainly due to his interest in Nietzsche, see particularly The Supermen) or novels would eventually culminate in Bowie’s flirtation with Nazism two years later.  1984 shows Bowie’s obsession with power and absolute control as well as those affected by it.   He also shows fascination for the schizophrenic manner in which its abuses are encouraged.

On Diamond Dogs, Bowie makes the most of Orwell’s widow’s reluctance to allow his musical based on Nineteen Eighty Four by using Orwell’s concept of dystopian post-apocalyptic hell to create his own nightmarish vision.  Whilst obviously showing direct lyrical homage by Nineteen Eighteen Four, Bowie’s song 1984, together with it’s We Are The Dead and Big Brother counterparts, also follows the themes in Bowie’s own work.  Just as Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four was evocative of the post World War Two era in which it was written, 1984 and the Diamond Dogs album as a whole is evocative of the time in which it was written.  In the UK, it was an era one of three day weeks, power cuts, price hikes, food shortages and threat of IRA attacks.  The apocalypse that Bowie spoke of earlier songs such as Five Years seemed to be coming to pass.  For the previous few years, Bowie had also strongly believed that World War Three was imminent, as suggested on Aladdin Sane (1973) where “(1913 – 1938 – ?)” followed the title.  The first two years refer to the years before the two World Wars broke out and finds Bowie questioning when the Third World War will start.  History is pointing in one direction, it is there in the tea leaves and it is there on TV:  “Beware the savage jaw of 1984”.